Dholavira, the archaeological site of a Harappan-era city, received the UNESCO world heritage site tag.
- The IVC acropolis is located on a hillock near present-day Dholavira village in Kutch district, from which it gets its name.
- It was discovered in 1968 by archaeologist Jagat Pati Joshi.
- The site’s excavation between 1990 and 2005 under the supervision of archaeologist Ravindra Singh Bisht uncovered the ancient commercial city.
- It is one of the very few well preserved urban settlements in South Asia dating from the 3rd to mid-2nd millennium BCE.
- It was located in the island of Khadir which was strategic to harness different mineral and raw material sources (copper, shell, agate-carnelian, steatite, lead, banded limestone, among others).
- It facilitated internal as well as external trade to the Magan (modern Oman peninsula) and Mesopotamian regions.
- One finds the origin of the Buddhist Stupas in memorials in Dholavira
- After Mohen-jo-Daro, Ganweriwala and Harappa in Pakistan and Rakhigarhi in Haryana of India, Dholavira is the fifth largest metropolis of IVC.
- The site has a fortified citadel, a middle town and a lower town with walls made of sandstone or limestone instead of mud bricks in many other Harappan sites.
- While unlike graves at other IVC sites, no mortal remains of humans have been discovered at Dholavira.
Other Harappan sites in Gujarat
- Before Dholavira was excavated, Lothal, in Saragwala village on the bank of Sabarmati in Dholka taluka of Ahmedabad district, was the most prominent site of IVC in Gujarat.
- It was excavated between 1955 and 1960 and was discovered to be an important port city of the ancient civilisation, with structures made of mud bricks.
- From a graveyard in Lothal, 21 human skeletons were found. Foundries for making copperware were also discovered. Ornaments made of semi-precious stones, gold etc. were also found from the site.
- Besides Lothal, Rangpur on the bank of Bhadar river in Surendranagar district was the first Harappan site in the state to be excavated.
- Rojdi in Rajkot district, Prabhas near Veraval in Gir Somnath district, Lakhabaval in Jamnagar, and Deshalpar in Bhuj taluka of Kutch are among other Harappan sites in the state.