The Bihar government recently announced 33% horizontal reservation for women in State engineering and medical colleges
What is the vertical and horizontal reservation?
The reservation for Scheduled Castes (SCs), Scheduled Tribes (STs), Other Backward Classes (OBCs) and Economically Weaker Sections (EWS) is referred to as the vertical reservation.
This refers to the equal opportunity provided to other categories of beneficiaries, such as women, veterans, the transgender community, and individuals with disabilities, cutting through the vertical categories.
- The horizontal reservations do not add to the regular reservation limit. Instead, it will be distributed across all the vertical categories, including the non-reserved category.
- For Instance, If an engineering college in Bihar has 100 reserved seats for STs, 33 of those seats (33% horizontal reservation) will have to be filled with ST women. So, the overall vertical reservation limit will be the same.
How are the two categories of quotas applied together?
- The horizontal quota is applied separately to each vertical category, and not across the board.
- For example, if women have 50% horizontal quota, then half of the selected candidates will have to necessarily be women in each vertical quota category.
- This means half of all selected SC candidates will have to be women, half of the unreserved or general category will have to be women, and so on.
- The interlocking of the two types of reservation throws up a host of questions on how certain groups are to be identified.
- For example, would an SC woman be put in the category of women or SC? Since quotas are fixed in percentages, what percentage of quota would be attributed to each?